FreeBody Diagram (FBD) and
Massacceleration Diagram (MAD)
are Directly Related 

Newton's Second Law states that the force on a particle is equal to the rate of change of its linear momentum, or
F = d(mv)/dt
Sometimes, linear momentum, L, is given as
L = mv
If the mass is constant, then the more familiar force equation is derived,
This relationship basically states nonequibilirium forces will cause the object to accelerate. This a the core concept in dynamics and most problems will require its use, regardless of coordinate system.
To help set up problems, it is often useful to construct both a freebody diagram and a massacceleration diagram to represent each side of the equation. They can also be combined showing both the forces and acceleration vectors on the same diagram.



A large body, such as a car, plane, or boat, can be considered a particle for the purpose of analyzing its motion, provided the effects of rotation about the center of mass can be ignored (rigid body rotation is addressed in later chapters).
The total force and acceleration acting on a particle can be expressed in terms of rectangular components.

ΣF_{x}i + ΣF_{y}j + ΣF_{z}k = m (a_{x}i + a_{y}j + a_{z}k)


This can be broken down into 3 scalar equations.
ΣF_{x} = ma_{x}
ΣF_{y} = ma_{y}
ΣF_{z} = ma_{z} 